1. The top line is the total length of the animal from front of pool to back of rump. The top line is taken for three measurements, Neck length, Body length and Rump length. These three measurements make up the total top line length.
2. The total distance around of the animals heart girth. The heart girth should be equal to the total top line or larger at 12 months of age. The large girth is needed for proper size of the vital organs (heart, lungs, glands). The closer the heart girth is to the top line, the more efficient, adaptable and vigorous the animal will be. Larger heart girth to top line is better. Insufficient heart is a high indicator of structural defects, allows front feet to toe out, hooked toe, more susceptible to stress and is a high maintenance animal. They do not perform well on grass. Small heart girth is a structural defect and should not be tolerated. Reproduction suffers.
Actual neck length minus ½ the body length. Neck should
be equal to half the body or half of 2/3 top line. The neck
be 1/3 the total length. A well-balanced cow will have a neck half the
length of her body. Ideal range +.5 or -.5 inches. If the neck is
too long the cow will be very dairy and high maintenance. Easy to
Her daughters will have long necks. Long necks tend to over produce
making the maintenance high and she will be a slower breeder. If
the neck is too short the cow will be wider in the shoulders (coarse)
milk production suffers, and a loss of femininity. Or masculine
Long necks in the female are not symbolic of femininity.
LENGTH OR 2/3 TOP LINE
The 2/3 top line is composed of the rump length and back
Distance from the middle dip in vertebrate between the shoulder blades
to back of rump. If the back is to long it affect the neck
length and the animal is out of balance. Long backs tend to be
and will sway. Most long backs have too small a loin muscle. Long backs
can cause an irregular shaped loin muscle. The animal will break behind
the top of shoulder to loin muscle. There will be a dip from rib cage
shoulder blade. These breaks or dips are a structural defect and should
not be tolerated.
Shoulder width should be same as rump length. Shoulder width
minus rump length. Ideal range is 0 or +.5 or -.5 inches. Too
of shoulders in a female will cause a lack in milk production.
narrow a shoulder in the female requires more maintenance and results
reproductive problems and is high maintenance. In the cow, the
should balance the rump length.
The rump length percent is the percentage the rump makes up
of the body length or the 2/3 body length. Divide the 2/3 body length
the rump length for the rump length percent. In females the rump
length should not exceed 40% of the 2/3 top line. 38% to
is the ideal range. Either side of this is in the extreme. The
length sets the standard for femininity.
Fertility and maternal trait indicator.
The greater the flank circumference is than the heart girth the higher the fertility.
RUMP WIDTH PERCENT
Rump width divided by the rump height. (21 rw divided by 48
rh = 43% rmp wd.) Indicates ability of self-fleshing, ease of keeping,
reproductive efficiency Indicator of volume of meat on rump. The
rump width% is 40% of rump height. The wider and deeper the rump
and flank the higher the maternal Characteristics. The wide deep rump
femininity and reproductive efficiency. Wide rumped cows have sons and
daughters with wide rumps.
9. Rump width minus rump length. The rump width should be 2.5 inches wider than its length. The wider the rump is than long is a high fertility indicator.
Correlates highly with gain-ability.
Tall animals tend to be out of balance, slow to come into puberty, thus lower in fertility and reproductive efficiency. Have smaller loins. For overall performance and finishing on grass a frame score of 3.5 to 4.5 works best.
Thurl should be 13% of the rump height or greater. Greater
is better if the slopes of the rump is of the proper angle. Thurl
should be 13% of hip
height or greater. Indicates pelvic depth and structural
of hind legs. If the thurl is properly in place the animal
will track (back foot in front track) Measurement is taken from
to stifle joint to top of back. Proper structured thurl makes for
ease of calving.